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Table 1 The advantages and disadvantages of various transdermal delivery system

From: Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery systems: a review

  Method Advantages Disadvantages Ref.
Active Delivery Iontophoresis • Improving the delivery of polar molecules as well as high molecular weight compounds
• Faster and easier administration
• Enabling continuous or pulsatile delivery of drug
• Risk of burns if electrodes are used improperly
• Difficulty stabilizing the therapeutic agent in the vehicle
• Complexity of the drug release system
Sonophoresis • Allows strict control of transdermal diffusion rates
• In many cases, greater patient approval
• Less risk of systemic absorption
• Helpful to break up blood clots
• Not immensely sensitizing
• Can be prolonged to administer
• Minor tingling, irritation and burning
• SC must be unbroken for effective drug penetration
Electroporation • Highly effective, reproducible, directed drug transfer
• Permits rapid termination of drug delivery through termination
• Not immensely sensitizing
• Impossible to use on a large area
• Can be disturb the cargo if high voltage is uesd
• Possibility of cell damage
• Relatively nonspecific
Photomechanical waves • Can improve transfer of molecules across the plasma membrane of cells in vitro without loss of viability
• Not appear to cause injury to the viable skin
• Do not cause pain or discomfort
• Lack of human clinical data [37,38,39,40]
Microneedle • Painless administration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient
• Faster healing at injection site
• No fear of needle
• Specific skin area can be targeted for proper drug delivery
• Lower dosing accuracy than hypodermic needles
• Penetration depth of various particles depending on the skin layer
• Possibility of venous collapse due to repeated injections
  Thermal ablation • Avoid the pain, bleeding, and infection
• Can remove SC selectively without damaging deeper tissues
• Better control and reproducibility
• Low cost and disposable device
• Structural changes in the skin must be evaluated
• Existing concerns about the use of extreme temperatures and the logistics of such devices
Passive delivery Vesicles • Accomplish sustained drug release behavior
• Control the absorption rate through a multilayered structure
• Chemically unstable
• Expensive of formulations
• Limitation of drug loading
Polymeric nanoparticles • Accomplish targeted and controlled release behavior
• High mechanical strength and non-deformability
• Can be made of various biodegradable materials
• Can be loaded both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs
• Can avoid the immune system due to small size
• Difficult to break down
• Not enough toxicological assessment has been done
• Some processes are difficult to scale up
Nanoemulsion • Long-term thermodynamic stability
• Excellent wettability
• High solubilization capacity and physical stability
• Possible to formulate it in variety of formulations
• Requires large concentration of emulsifiers
• Limited solubilizing capacity for high-melting substances
• Variable kinetics of distribution processes and clearance
[58, 71, 72]