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Table 3 The specific conditions of ES to induce cell proliferation and differentiation

From: Electrical stimulation as a novel tool for regulating cell behavior in tissue engineering

Cell typeType of ESElectrical parametersMajor findings
OsteoblastDC100 mACelluar proliferation, elongation were improved
NSCsBiphasic current pulses100 μA, 100 Hz with 100 μsec durationNSCs proliferation was promoted associating with upregulated neuronal gene expression level and increased microtubule-associated protein 2
CardiomyocytesDC~1 μAEnhances proliferation with no morphological changes in vitro, modulate the expression of MMPs and TIMPs in vitro and in vivo
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (Foreskin)-2 cell lineBiphasic current pulses65 mV/mm or 200 mV/mm for 5 min, 1 Hz, and 1 ms pulse widthThe cell showed cardiac differentiation with increased the expression of NKX2.5 and TBX5, as well as the proteins ACTC1, TNNT2, MYH7, and MYL7
Human ESCsN/A6.6 V/cm, 1 Hz, and 2 ms pulsesUpregulation of gene expression including HCN1, MLC2V, SCN5A, SERCA, Kv4.3, and GATA4; cellular elongation, and an increase in the proportion of ventricular-like hESC-derived cardiomyocytes
Mouse bone marrow stromal cellsRectangular pulse100 mV, 10 Hz, 2.0 ms, 30 minInduced the differentiation of mouse BMSCs into neural cells with enhanced neurogenin2 (Ngn2) expression
SCs & PC12 cellN/A100 mV/cm, 1 hPromote SCs proliferation, and promoted PC12 cell differentiation into SCs and axonal extension
Mouse embryonic osteoblast precursors Mc-3 T3-E1Rectangular pulses200 mV/cm, 1 Hz to 100 kHz, 30 min100 Hz could up-regulate the mRNA levels of collagen I, collagen II and Runx2, accelerate cells differentiation and proliferation, down-regulate the mRNA levels of osteopontin (OPN). 1 Hz to 10 Hz could improve calcium deposition in the intracellular matrix.
BMSCsN/A20 mV/cm, 60 kHzAn increase in ALP and col1 transcript, and NADH, FAD, lipofuscin was detected, improved hMSC differentiation potential to bone