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Table 1 The forms, electrical conductivity, advantages and disadvantages of different materials

From: Electrical stimulation as a novel tool for regulating cell behavior in tissue engineering

MaterialsFormsElectrical conductivityAdvantagesDisadvantages
Platinum-gold alloy [46]DiscsGold 4.52 × 107 S/m
Platinum 9.6 × 106 S/m
High mechanical strength, long-term stability, good biocompatibility and good corrosion resistanceExpensive, cell death caused by ion release
Magnesium (Mg) alloys [48]Discs≈2 × 107 S/mHigh strength, fracture resistance, good electrical conductivityPoor biocompatibility; cell death caused by high ion release, and change of local pH
Polypyrrole [57]Coating102~ 103 S/cmGood compatibility and support cell adhesion and growthRigid, insoluble and poorly processable
Polyaniline [58]Film5~ 10 S/cmGood environmental stability, low cost, good biocompatibilityPoor mechanical properties and complicated manufacturing methods
Graphene [55]Coating106 ~ 108 S/mGood mechanical properties, easy bio-functionalization and drug loadingModerate toxicity
Carbon nanotubes [52, 53]Doping with other materials1.8 × 107 S/mHigh mechanical resilience, good support for active materials, high chemical stability, elasticityPoor biocompatibility, poor dispersion, insoluble and toxic to the cells