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Table 4 External gelation with on-chip introduction of cross-linkers

From: Preparation of alginate hydrogel microparticles by gelation introducing cross-linkers using droplet-based microfluidics: a review of methods

Reference Zhang et al., 2007 [61] Liu et al., 2019 [29] Sugaya et al., 2011 [44] Pittermannová et al., 2016 [34]
Droplet generation Concentration of Na-alginate 2 wt% 3 wt% 0.025–0.15 wt% 1 w/v%
Continuous fluid Soybean oil Corn oil Methyl acetate 1-undecanol
Use of surfactant Span 80 SY-Glyster
Not mentioned Abil Em 90
Geometry Flow-focusing Flow-focusing Flow-focusing Flow-focusing
Microfluidic material PDMS chip Glass chip PDMS chip PDMS chip
External gelation by introducing Na-alginate and cross-linkers on chip before collection Cross-linkers Ca (CH3COO)2
(2 wt%)
in the continuous fluid
Emulsion of CaCl2 in the continuous fluid CaCl2 (1 M) in the dispersed fluid Emulsion of CaCl2 (2 wt%) droplets in the continuous fluid
Geometry Flow-focusing Cross-flowing Flow-focusing
Mixing During droplet generation After droplet generation After droplet generation After droplet generation