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Table 3 Internal gelation with water-insoluble or weakly soluble cross-linkers which are pH sensitive

From: Preparation of alginate hydrogel microparticles by gelation introducing cross-linkers using droplet-based microfluidics: a review of methods

References Zhang et al., 2007 [61] Akbari and Pirbodaghi, 2014 [3] Yu et al., 2019 [56] Utech et al., 2015 [49]
Droplet generation Concentration of Na-alginate 2 wt% 1,5 wt% 2 w/v% 2 wt%
Continuous fluid Soybean oil Fluorocarbon oil Mineral oil Fluorinated carbon oil
Use of surfactant Span 80 Fluorinated surfactant Span 80 Biocompatible surfactant
Geometry Flow-focusing Flow-focusing Flow-focusing Flow-focusing
Microfluidic material PDMS chip PDMS chip PDMS chip PDMS chip
Internal gelation by mixing Na-alginate and water-insoluble or weakly soluble cross-linkers Cross-linkers CaCO3 (0,1 wt%) CaCO3 (35 mM) CaCO3 (200 mM) Ca-EDTA (50 mM)
Mixing Off-line, before droplet generation Before droplet generation Off-line, before droplet generation Off-line, before droplet generation
Gelation by acid addition In continuous fluid In continuous fluid In collecting fluid In continuous fluid