Skip to main content

Table 2 The preparation method of polyphenol-loaded electrospun nanofiber, nanofiber diameter distribution, and their contribution to bone tissue engineering are listed

From: Polyphenols-loaded electrospun nanofibers in bone tissue engineering and regeneration

Polyphenol Additives Polymeric Composite with Additives and their Labels Electrospinning Method and the Nanofiber Diameter Distribution In Vitro / In Vivo Biological Source Salient Outcomes References
Curcumin PCL-curcumin (CU0, CU1, and CU5) Conventional method/
CU0: 840 ± 130 nm
CU1: 827 ± 129 nm
CU5: 680 ± 110 nm
In vitro: MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblasts; 1, 5 and 10 days CU1 nanofibers showed significant osteogenesis leading to mineralization compared to CU0 and CU5 nanofibers. Jain et al. (2016) [94]
Curcumin 4-arm PCL-(Zn-curcumin)/ PVA-CMCh-GO (N1, N2, N3, N4, and N5) Coaxial method/
N1: 205 ± 92 nm
N2: 186 ± 78 nm
N3: 174 ± 56 nm
N4: 153 ± 31 nm
N5: 156 ± 34 nm
In vitro: MG-63 human osteoblasts; 7 and 14 days. The experimental nanofiber (N4) showed an increased ALP activity, enhanced matrix mineralization, and reduced post-operative infection. Sedghi et al. (2018) [95]
Catechin (Cat) PCL-Cat Conventional method/
PCL: 200 ± 150 nm
PCL-Cat: 200 ± 150 nm
In vivo: critical-sized calvarial bone defect mouse model; 4 mm defect size; 8 weeks
Control (no treat), PCL scaffold, PCL-Cat, PCL-hADSC, and PCL-Cat-hADSC groups
PCL-Cat-hADSC demonstrated a high bone coverage and bone volume than other groups on 8 weeks of post-transplantation (p < 0.01 vs. control; p < 0.05 vs. PCL) Lee et al. (2017) [96]
Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-epigallocatechin gallate (POSS-EGCG) Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-POSS-EGCG
(PVDF, PE02, PE04, and PE06)
Conventional method/
PVDF: 1033 ± 270 nm
PE02: 971 ± 262 nm
PE04: 936 ± 223 nm
PE06: 1094 ± 394 nm
MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts; 3, 5, 7, and 14 days; 1 × 104 cells POSS-EGCG conjugation improved bioactivity of PVDF nanofiber; PE06 showed maximum ALP activity and improved bone mineralization (p < 0.05 vs. PVDF). Jeong et al. (2019) [97]
Zinc quercetin-phenanthroline (Zn + Q(PHt)) PCL-gelatin- (Zn + Q(PHt)) Conventional method/
PCL-gelatin: 260–500 nm
PCL-gelatin-(Zn + Q(PHt)): 250–600 nm
In vitro: MG-63 osteoblast-like cells; 3 and 7 days PCL-gelatin-(Zn + Q(PHt)) scaffold showed more relative ALP activity than PCL-gelatin on 3 and 7 days of post-treatment; Runx2 and type 1 collagen mRNAs expression were also found more significant in PCL-gelatin-(Zn + Q(PHt)) scaffold. Preeth et al. (2021) [98]
Resveratrol (RSV) PCL-RSV and PLA-RSV Conventional method/
PCL-RSV: 0.97 ± 0.45 μm
PLA-RSV: 0.45–1.20 μm
In vitro: STRO-1 positive stem cells (STRO-1+ cells); 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days Both materials exhibited the same level of osteoinductive capacity; Only PLA-RSV induced expression of osteoblasts inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Riccitiello et al. (2018) [99]
Icariin (ICA) PG: PCL-gelatin
nanofiber without drug
PGM: nanofiber with MOX
PGI: nanofiber with ICA
PGMI: nanofiber with MOX-ICA
Coaxial method/
PG: 0.4–0.8 μm
PGM: 0.4–0.8 μm
PGI: 0.7–1 μm
PGMI: 0.7–1 μm
In vitro: MC3T3-E1 cells; 7, 14, and 21 days
In vivo: New Zealand White rabbits; 2.5 kg bw; 3 groups; 1, 2, and 3 months
PGI promoted a significant ALP secretion among all the fiber membranes, whereas PGMI demonstrated a higher expression of OCN and COL I.
PGMI group displayed a high quality of bone formation compared to untreated and PG groups at 3 months of post-surgery.
Gong et al. (2019) [100]
Icariin PCL-gelatin-icariin
(PGI0, PGI0.005, PGI0.01, PGI0.05, PGI0.1, and PGI0.5)
Conventional method/
PGI0: 0.26 ± 0.06 μm
PGI0.005: 0.19 ± 0.05 μm
PGI0.01: 0.17 ± 0.04 μm
PGI0.05: 0.16 ± 0.05 μm
PGI0.1: 0.17 ± 0.04 μm
PGI0.5: 0.16 ± 0.04 μm
In vitro: MC3T3-E1 cells; 14 and 21 days PGI0.05 efficiently enhanced the expression of ALP, OCN, COL 1, and calcium deposition compared to other scaffolds. Gong et al. (2018) [101]