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Fig. 4 | Biomaterials Research

Fig. 4

From: Polyphenols-loaded electrospun nanofibers in bone tissue engineering and regeneration

Fig. 4

In vitro mineralization assay of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) during osteogenic differentiation following treatment with curcumin (CR) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) groups. BMSCs in the osteogenic medium were indicated by the OM group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alizarin red (ALZ), and von Kossa (VK) staining results were obtained after 1, 3, and 4 weeks of post-induction, respectively. Quantification of staining intensity was performed with ImageJ software. The level of calcium deposition reflects the extent of mineralization, which was higher in the CR group than in the OM and ATRA groups. ATRA group did not show any symptoms of mineralization. The data were represented as the mean ± standard deviation (n = 3). The statistical significance was defined using a one-way analysis of variance, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and, ***p < 0.001 [59]

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