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Table 3 Characteristics of studies in MA2

From: Additively manufactured titanium scaffolds and osteointegration - meta-analyses and moderator-analyses of in vivo biomechanical testing

Author Publication year Animal Implantation site (type of bone) Implant shape and dimensions (diameter and height) Controle group (Co) = 3DPPT Experimental group (Exp) = 3DPPT + post-printing treatment Type of post-printing treatment Reported outcome of mechnical testing follow-up (weeks) Reference Name in MA 2
Amin Yavari et al. 2014 [15] rat femur diafyse (= trabecular) cross-cut femur defect d outer = 5 mm, d inner = 1,3 mm, h = 6 mm “AlAcH” (= por Ti (alkali-acid-heat treated)) “AnH” (= por Ti; anodized (also acid- and heat-treated)) oxidation (electro-chemical treatment) “Maximum torque (N.mm)” mean + SD measured ( [15]; Fig. 8c) 12 Amin Yavari (at 12 weeks)
Garcia-Gareta et al. 2014 [16] sheep femur condyle (= trabecular) cylinder d = 9 mm, h = 11 mm “No Cells” (= por Ti + CaP coating (3-15 μm)) “With Cells” (= por Ti + CaP coating (3-15 μm) + MSC (Mesenchymal Stem Cells)) adding stem cells “Maximum Force (N)” from push-out testsing mean + SD kindly provided by autor 6 Garcia-Gareta (at 6 weeks)
Stübinger et al. 2014 [17] sheep pelvis (= trabecular) screw d = 4,1 mm, h = 9 mm “AM” (= “Additive Manufactured”) (=por Ti (CaF grit blasted + acid washed + US cleaned + dryed)) “AM-PSD” (= AM + dendron functionalisation”) (= por Ti (CaF grit blasted + acid washed + US cleaned + dryed + psd (Phosphoserine modified dendron coating) adding growth- factors/ drugs/ others “Removal torque values in Nmm” mean + SD reported ( [17], Table 3) 2 Stübinger (at 2 weeks)
8 Stübinger (at 8 weeks)
Cohen et al. 2016 [18] rat calvaria onlay (= cortical) cylinder d = 5 mm, h =? “Rough” (=por Ti (CaF grit blasted + acid etched)) “DBX” (=por Ti (CaF grit blasted + acid etched) + (Demineralized Bone Matrix) puty) adding bone-matrix “Force at Failure (N)” from pull-out testing mean + SD measured ( [18], Fig. 3h) 10 Cohen (at 10 weeks)
Liu et al. 2016 [19] rabbit tibia (= trabecular) cylinder d = 5 mm, h = 6 mm “Simvastatin 0 mg” (=por Ti (US cleaned)) “Simvastatin 0,1 mg” (= por Ti (US cleaned) + 0,1 mg/ml simvastatine/poloxamer 407 hydrogel) adding growth- factors/ drugs/ others “Maximum push-in force (N)” mean + SD reported ( [19], Table 4) 4 Liu 1 (at 4 weeks)
8 Liu 1 (at 8 weeks)
“Simvastatin 5 mg” (= por Ti (US cleaned) + 0,5 mg/ml simvastatine/poloxamer 407 hydrogel) 4 Liu 2 (at 4 weeks)
8 Liu 2 (at 8 weeks)
Xiu et al. 2016 [20] rabbit femur condyl (= trabecular) cylinder d = 5 mm, h = 6 mm “Control” (= por Ti (US cleaned + dried)) “MAO” (= por Ti (US cleaned + dryed) + MicroArc Oxidation) oxidation (electro-chemical treatment) “Push out force (N)” mean + SD reported ( [20] section 4 page 10) 8 Xiu (at 8 weeks)
Xu et al. 2016 [21] rabbit calvaria (= cortical) cup with porous scaffold on inside d = 5 mm, h = 5 mm “native SLM” (= por Ti; US cleaned) “SLA” (=por Ti; US cleaned + ZrO2 sandblasted + acid etched) mechano-chemical treatment “Maximum force (N) to failure of pull-out test” mean + SD measured ( [21], Fig. 9c) 4 Xu 1 (at 4 weeks)
8 Xu 1 (at 8 weeks)
“SAN” (= por Ti; US cleaned + ZrO2 sandblasted + anodized) mechano-chemical treatment 4 Xu 2 (at 4 weeks)
8 Xu 2 (at 8 weeks)
“SAH” (=por Ti; US cleaned + ZrO2 sandblasted + alkali heat treated) oxidation (electro-chemical treatment) 4 Xu 3 (at 4 weeks)
8 Xu 3 (at 8 weeks)
Bandyopadhyay et al., 2017 [7] rat distal femur (= trabecular) cylinder d = 3 mm, h = 5 mm “LENS™ Porous Ti” (= “Laser Engineered Net Shaping”) “LENS™ Porous Ti-NT” (= por Ti, anodised, forming nanotubes (d = 105 nm, l = 375 nm)) oxidation (electro-chemical treatment) “Shear modulus (MPa)” from push-out testing mean + SD reported ( [7]; Table 3) 4 Bandyopadhyay (at 4 weeks)
10 Bandyopadhyay (at 10 weeks)
Cheng et al. 2017 [8] rat calvaria onlay (= cortical) block l = 3,5 mm, w = 5 mm h = 2 mm “Porous” (= por Ti (CaF grit blasted+ acid etched)) “Porous + DBX” (= por Ti (CaF grit blasted+ acid etched) + Decalcified Bone Matrix)) adding bone-matrix “Pull-out force (N)” mean + SD measured ( [8]; Fig. 4) 10 Cheng (at 10 weeks)
MacBarb et al. 2017 [9] sheep distal femur (= trabecular) triangular prism d = 7 mm (inscribed core circle) h = 45 mm “AM” (= “Additive Manufactured” por Ti) “AM + HA” (= por Ti + nanocrystalline HA) 20 nm layer) adding Ca-containing layer “Ultimate Shear Strength (MPa)” mean + SD measured ( [9]; Fig. 4a) 6 MacBarb 1 (at 6 weeks)
12 MacBarb 1 (at 12 weeks)
“AM + Auto” (= por Ti + autograft) adding bone-matrix 6 MacBarb 2 (at 6 weeks)
12 MacBarb 2 (at 12 weeks)
Tanzer et al. 2019 [22] dog femur diafyse (= cortical) cylinder d = 5,2 mm, h = 10 mm “LRM” (= “Laser Rapid Manufacturing” por Ti) “LRM-PA” (= por Ti + precipitated HA (20-70 μm layer)) adding Ca-containing layer “Mean shear strength (Mpa) from push-out testingmean + 95% CI reported ( [22]; results- section, page 3) 4 Tanzer 1 (at 4 weeks)
12 Tanzer 1 (at 12 weeks)
“LRM-PSHA” (= por Ti + plasma sprayed HA (20 μm layer)) 4 Tanzer 2 (at 4 weeks)
12 Tanzer 2 (at 12 weeks)
Teng et al. 2019 [23] rabbit calvaria (= cortical) cylinder d = 20 mm, h = 2 mm “MAO” (= por Ti (sandblasted, acid etched, cleaned, dried) + MicroArc Oxidation) “MAO-CaP” (= por Ti (sandblasted, acid etched, cleaned, dried) + MAO + CaP adding Ca-containing layer “Torsion force (N/cm)” mean + SD reported ( [23], Fig. 6) 6 Teng 1 (at 6 weeks)
12 Teng 1 (at 12 weeks)
“MAO-BMP” (= por Ti (sandblasted, acid etched, cleaned, dried) + MAO + CaP + BMP2 adding growth- factors/ drugs/ others 6 Teng 2 (at 6 weeks)
12 Teng 2 (at 12 weeks)
Bai et al. 2020 [24] rabbit (OVX) distal femur (= trabecular) cylinder d = 6 mm, h = 10 mm “S” (= “Scaffold” = por Ti (US cleaned)) “SG” (= por ti (US cleaned) + hydrogel) adding growth- factors/ drugs/ others “Push-out force (N)” mean + SD measured ( [24] Fig. 6c) 12 Bai 1 (at 12 weeks)
“SGC” (= por ti (US cleaned) + hydrogel + stem cells) adding stem cells 12 Bai 2 (at 12 weeks)
“SGB” (= por ti (US cleaned) + hydrogel + BMP2 adding growth- factors/ drugs/ others 12 Bai 3 (at 12 weeks)
“SGCB” (= por ti (US cleaned) + hydrogel + stem cells + BMP2) adding stem cells 12 Bai 4 (at 12 weeks)
Fan et al. 2020 [25] rabbit radius (= trabecular) cylinder d = 5 mm, h = 13 mm “pTi” (= por Ti) “BaTiO3/pTi (= porTi + BaTiO3 piezoelectric coating) adding growth- factors/ drugs/ others “Peak pull out load (N)” mean + SD measured ( [25] Fig. 11c) 6 Fan 1 (at 6 weeks)
12 Fan 1 (at 12 weeks)
“pTi + LIPUS” (= por Ti + Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound treatment) 6 Fan 2 (at 6 weeks)
12 Fan 2 (at 12 weeks)
“BaTiO3/pTi” (= porTi + BaTiO3 coating + Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound treatment) 6 Fan 3 (at 6 weeks)
12 Fan 3 (at 12 weeks)