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Table 2 Characteristics of studies in MA1

From: Additively manufactured titanium scaffolds and osteointegration - meta-analyses and moderator-analyses of in vivo biomechanical testing

Author Publication year Animal Implantation site
(type of bone)
Implant shape and dimensions
(diameter and height)
Controle group (Co) = dense titanium Experimental group (Exp) = 3DPPT Experimental group characteristics Reported outcome of mechnical testing follow-up (weeks) Reference Name in MA 1
Pore size (μm) Porocity (%) Struth size (μm) Unit cell
Stübinger et al. 2013 [5] sheep pelvis (= trabecular) screw d = 4,1 mm, h = 9 mm “sandblasted and etched (SE)” “Additive manufactured (AM)” (= por Ti, sandblasted) 500 50   gyroid; 3 armed with angles of 120° “Removal torque out (Nmm)” mean + SD reported ( [5]; Table IV) 2 Stübinger (at 2 weeks)
8 Stübinger (at 8 weeks)
Hara et al. 2016 [6] rabbit femur condyle (= trabecular) cylinder d = 5 mm, h = 12 mm “Ti-spray” (= melted Ti sprayed onto solid Ti core) “Porous Ti-alloy (640 μm)” 656 (SD 29) 70 (SD 0,7)   diamond “Peak load of push-out testing” (N) mean + SD reported ( [6]; page 4, section 3) 4 Hara (at 4 weeks)
12 Hara (at 12 weeks)
Bandyopadhyay et al. 2017 [7] rat femur condyle (= trabecular) cylinder
d = 3 mm, h = 5 mm
“Dense Ti” “LENS™ Porous Ti” (= “Laser Engineered Net Shaping”) 200–300 25    “Shear modulus (Mpa)”, calculated from push-out testing mean + SD reported ( [7]; Table 3) 4 Bandyopadhyay (at 4 weeks)
10 Bandyopadhyay (at 10 weeks)
Cheng et al. 2017 [8] rat calvaria onlay (= cortical) block l = 3,5 mm, w = 5 mm
h = 2 mm
“Solid” (CaF grit blasted + acid etched) “Porous” (= por Ti (CaF grit blasted+ acid etched)) 563 (SD 2) 67 (SD 3)    “Pull-out force (N) mean + SD measured ( [8]; Fig. 4) 10 Cheng (at 10 weeks)
MacBarb et al. 2017 [9] sheep femur condyle (= trabecular) triangular prism d = 7 mm (inscribed core circle), h = 45 mm “TPS” (= CP Ti plasma-sprayed onto wrought Ti6AL4V core) “AM” (= additive manufactured porous Ti) 300 60    “Ultimate Shear Strength (Mpa)” calculated from push-out testing mean + SD measured ( [9]; Fig. 4a) 6 MacBarb (at 6 weeks)
12 MacBarb (at 12 weeks)
Ran et al. 2018 [10] rabbit femur condyl (= trabecular) cylinder d = 4 mm, h = 13 mm “dense” “p500” 401 (SD 26)   300   “Mean interfacial strength (Mpa)” calculated from push-out testing mean + SD measured ( [10]; Fig. 8e) 4 Ran 1 (at 4 weeks)
12 Ran 1 (at 12 weeks)
“p700” 607 (SD 24) 4 Ran 2 (at 4 weeks)
12 Ran 2 (at 12 weeks)
“p900” 801 (SD 33) 4 Ran 3 (at 4 weeks)
12 Ran 3 (at 12 weeks)
Wang et al. 2018 [11] rabbit femur condyle (= trabecular) cylinder d = 4,8 mm, h = 8 mm “Ts” (= “Ti solid”) “Ti-r” (= “Ti regular distribution”) 457,5 (SD 31,1) 62,5 (SD 2,1) 424 (SD 25,6) (diamond, regular distribution) “Push out force (N)” mean + SD measured ( [11]; Fig. 7c) 2 Wang 1 (at 2 weeks)
4 Wang 1 (at 4 weeks)
8 Wang 1 (at 8 weeks)
“Ti-ir” (= “Ti iregular distribution”) 452,5 (SD 43,5) 61,1 (SD 2,2) 435 (SD 36,5) (diamond, irregular distribution) 2 Wang 2 (at 2 weeks)
4 Wang 2 (at 4 weeks)
8 Wang 2 (at 8 weeks)
“Ti-g” (= “Ti with gradiënt”) 427,0 (SD 40,4) 61,6 (SD 2,8) 449 (SD 34,5) (diamond, gradiënt distribution) 2 Wang 3 (at 2 weeks)
4 Wang 3 (at 4 weeks)
8 Wang 3 (at 8 weeks)
“Ti-tr” (= “Ti tetrahedral”) 458,5 (SD 29,6) 66,2 (SD 2,0) 410 (SD 23,2) (tetrahedral) 2 Wang 4 (at 2 weeks)
4 Wang 4 (at 4 weeks)
8 Wang 4 (at 8 weeks)
Chang et al. 2019 [12] rabbit femur condyle (= trabecular) screw d = 4,3 mm, h = 10 mm “DMLS type 4 non-porous” “DMLS type 6 porous” 300–500 55    “Pull out Strength (N)” mean + SD reported ( [12]; page9, section 3.3) 6 Chang (at 6 weeks)
12 Chang (at 12 weeks)
Huang et al. 2020 [13] rabbit tibia (= trabecular) screw d = 2,1 mm, h = 9,7 mm “Control screw” “AMD interference screw” (= por Ti + 1 μm thick HA coating) 200–400 15.4    “Maximal failure load (N)” calculated from pull-out testing mean + SD measured ( [13]; Fig. 3) 4 Huang (at 4 weeks)
12 Huang (at 12 weeks)
24 Huang (at 24 weeks)
Tikhilov et al. 2020 [14] rabbit tibia (= trabecular) rectangular plate l = 10 mm, w = 5 mm, h = 2 mm “control” “experimental” 100   450   “Maximum load” (N) calculated from pull-out testing median + IQR reported ( [14]; page 4) 13 Tikhilov (at 13 weeks)