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Table 1 Mechanisms of interaction reported for biomolecules onto iron oxide nanoparticles

From: Bio-nano interactions: binding proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and nucleic acids onto magnetic nanoparticles

Target biomolecule Nanoparticle type and size Interaction mechanism Ref.
AMINO ACIDS, PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS
 Transferrin Bare/PVA coated IONPs (5–10 nm) By affinity using iron binding sites [8]
 Lysine IONPs (9.7 ± 1.5 nm and 14 nm) Through the carboxylic group and molecular associates at high concentrations [60, 61]
 Aspartic acid IONPs (9.7 ± 1.5 nm) Both carboxyl groups attached to the surface, through the side carboxyl group and associates. [60]
 Glycine IONPs (14 nm) Via carboxyl group in ionic or bidentate coordination [61]
 Glutamic acid IONPs (14 nm) Bridging mechanism by the α- or the side chain carboxyl group
 Serine IONPs (14 nm) Formation of ionic or bidentate bridging complexes
 L-arginine, L-lysine
L-glutamine and glycine
IONPs (NA) Electrostatic interactions [141]
 Homo-peptides IONPs (14 nm) Electrostatic interactions [95]
 Plasma proteins Azaleic acid coated IONPs (10 nm) Hydrophobic interactions [54]
 Glu8 peptides BION (5–20 nm) Carboxylate groups [77]
FATTY ACIDS AND OTHER LIPIDS
 Sodium oleate IONPs (10 nm) Bidentate coordination: carboxylate group of sodium oleate and hydroxyl groups of the IONP surface. [80]
Ionic interaction of carboxylic groups on the secondary layer
 Oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and linoleic acid IONPs (8 nm) Covalent binding [132]
 Multilipids, including DSPE-mPEG and DSPE-PEG-PDP Oleic acid coated IONPs Hydrophobic interactions between the oleic acid tails and DSPEPEG tails (lipid stitching) [133]
(10–30 nm)
 DOTAP IONPs Hydrophobic, van der Waals and magnetic dipolar force forming a bilayer [21]
(11 ± 1.3 nm)
NUCLEIC ACIDS
 DNA IONPs (15.3 nm) Hydrogen bonds [16]
 ODN TRIS coated IONPs (2.6 nm) Electrostatic interactions: hydroxylic groups and phosphate [17]
 pDNA Silica coated IONPs (9.8 nm) Electrostatic interactions: hydroxylic groups and phosphate [17]
 DNA IONPs Electrostatic interactions with phosphate [123]
 Salmon DNA Silica coated IONPs (70 nm) Electrostatic interactions [142]
 DNA Amino functionalized silica coated IONPs (25 nm) Electrostatic interactions [143]
(amino groups and phosphate backbone)
CARBOHYDRATES
 Chitosan IONPs (11 nm) Electrostatic interactions [112]
 Alginate
 Polysaccharides IONPs (8.41 ± 0.94 nm) NA [23]