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Table 1 Characteristics of some natural bio-based monomers used in biomedical applications

From: Natural bio-based monomers for biomedical applications: a review

Bio-based monomers Source Characteristics References
Itaconic acid Aspergillus itaconicus Antimicrobial activity, non-toxic, biocompatible, biodegradable, chemical reactivity, surfactant forming ability, hydrophilic activity, wound-healing activity, coating forming ability, water uptake ability, drug carrier ability, and hydrogel-forming ability [20,21,22,23,24,25,26]
Succinic acid Actinobacillus succinogenes, Anaerobiospirillum, and Mannheimia succiniciproducens Biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, chemical reactivity, food additives ability, food flavoring ability, surfactant/detergent extender/foaming ability, drug carrier ability, pH control ability, antimicrobial activity, and corrosion prevention ability [27,28,29,30,31]
Citric acid Citrus fruits and Aspergillus niger Biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, excellent chelating property, anti-odor property, chemical reactivity, pH control ability, food additives ability, food flavoring/preservative ability, and drug carrier ability [32,33,34,35,36,37]
Hyaluronic acid Rooster comb, human (umbilical cord, joint (synovial) fluid, vitreous body, dermis, epidermis), bovine nasal cartilage, and rabbit brain and heart. Biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, viscoelastic property, excellent gelling property, anti-inflammatory property, wound-healing activity, excellent cosmetic property, and drug carrier ability [8, 38,39,40,41]
Glutamic acid Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis Biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, excellent chelating property, heavy metal removal ability, cosmetic property, drug carrier ability, hydrophilic activity, anionic property, thickener property, aging inhibitor ability, and use as an additive [42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52]