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Table 1 Summarization of properties of commonly used nanoparticles in Endodontics

From: Nanoparticle technology and its implications in endodontics: a review

Nanoparticle Mechanical property Physical property Chemical property Biological property
Graphene 1. highly stable
2. transparent
3. flexible material
4. increased ductility and malleability
1. High surface area is due to its peculiar structure.
2. Excellent electronic properties
3. Excellent optical properties.
1. Presence of a 2D structure comprising of single, thick carbon sheets arranged in a honeycomb pattern. 1. Good antimicrobial properties especially against S.mutans
2. Enhanced tissue dissolving properties.
3. Low toxicity level
Carbon nanotubes 1. Higher tensile strength as they have a hexagonal arrangement
2. Malleability is comparable to that of rubber
3. High ductility (8–12%)
4. Superior mechanical strength.
1. Large Surface area
2. Extremely light weight
3. Highly heat stable
4. Low density.
1. Good conduction efficiency
2. Superior bonding between these atoms making these NPs quite stable
3. Carbon atoms are arranged in the form of hexagonal rings
1. Enhanced antimicrobial properties
2. Ability to penetrate the bacterial cell membrane.
3. Induces inflammatory and fibrotic reactions under extreme conditions.
40 Potentially toxic in nature.
Silver nanoparticles 1. Good conductors of electricity
2. Possessing good malleability and ductility.
1. Due to its small size and high surface it confers excellent electrical, optical, thermal properties 1. Enhanced surface chemistry thereby making it an effective antibacterial agent 1. Effctive antimicrobial agent especially against E.faecalis.
2. Increased permeability in the bacterial cell membrane.
3. Highly biocompatible
4. Low toxicity levels.
Chitosan 1. Inactive and
non-soluble in water alkali and organic solvents
2. pH more than 6
1. Soluble in various other mediums
2. Highly viscous, with a polyelectrolyte property.
1. It is a linear polyamine.
2. The presence of highly reactive hydroxyl and amino groups results in chelation of various transitional metal ions [38].
1. Excellent antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties.
2. Causes disruption of the bacterial cell membrane due to its electrostatic interaction.