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Table 2 Summary for the features of non-carbon nanomaterials to construct electrochemical biosensors

From: Electrochemical biosensors: perspective on functional nanomaterials for on-site analysis

MaterialsAdvantageLimitationsFeatureLimit of detectionRef.
Metallic nanoparticlesEfficient electron transfer
Increase in S/V
Supplying superior conductivity
Good biocompatibility
Easy functionalization
Electrical instability in high salt concentration
Inconsistent upon signal amplification
Electrode
(AuNPs)
CEA
0.01 pM
[65]
Electrode
(AgNPs)
PSA
0.1 pM
[73]
Label
(Fe3O4/Ag/Au)
IgG
0.33 fM
[74]
Label
(PtNPs)
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
0.001 pM
[66]
Label
(Pt/Cu NPs)
PSA
0.55 fM
[75]
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN)High pore volume and surface area
Good electron transfer and high loading capability
Well-defined surface properties
Tunability of size and shape
Difficult in preparation of well-ordered
Scattered size distribution
Formulation of stable-colloidal suspensions
Label
(MSN/Au)
PSA
0.01 pM
[76]
Label
(MSN/Au/Ru)
p53
22.8 fM
[77]
Label
(MSN/Ag)
N6-methyladenosine (m6A)
0.078 nM
[78]
NanowireHigh S/V
Rapid response
High electro-catalytic
capability and reproducibility
Improvement of the charge transfer and stability
Decrease in electrostatic potential
with distance
Electrode
(Ag)
IgG
0.03 pM
[67]
Label
(Pt)
hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)
0.14 fM
[79]
Electrode
(Cu2O)
AFP
0.0015 fM
[80]
Electrode
(Si)
cardiac troponin I (cTnI)
0.14 pM
[81]
ITOLow cost / High transmittance
Good electrical conductivity
Ease of surface modification
Slow kinetics of electron- transfer upon coating surface with antibodiesElectrode
(ITO/PET)
Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1
0.83 fM
[82]
Electrode
(ITO)
Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB)
0.24 fM
[83]
Electrode (ITO/Au)Guanine
250 nM
[84]
Electrode (ITO)microRNA
2.0 fM
[85]
Organic polymerHigh-throughput
Low-cost
Good flexibility, functionality, solubility, and specificity
Need to reproducibility of thin-film morphology
Chance to physical delamination
High operating voltages
Uncertainties in material stability
Electrode
(5, 2′:5′,2″-terthiophene-3′-carboxylic acid)
Glutamate
0.1 μM
[86]
Electrode
(polypyrrole)
Serotonin
0.03 μM
[87]
Electrode
(poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)
Dopamine
0.22 μM
[88]