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Table 1 Summary of representative carbon-based nanomaterials used in electrode and label of electrochemical biosensor

From: Electrochemical biosensors: perspective on functional nanomaterials for on-site analysis

MaterialsAdvantageLimitationsFeatureLimit of detectionRef.
SWCNTLarge surface area to volume ratio (S/V)
Low charge-carried density
Delocalized π-orbitals
Electrical conductivity improvements
Limited surface to interface
with large biological components
Nonspecific adsorption of protein
Difficult manipulation during sensor fabrication process
Difficult chemical functionalization
ElectrodeDeoxyriboNucleic acid (DNA)
71 pM
[13]
ElectrodeGlucose
7.06 μA/mM
[14]
Electrodeaflatoxin B1 (AFB1)
0.01 nM
[15]
ElectrodeAnti-IgG
0.2 pM
[16]
MWCNTExcellent conducting and
electro-catalytic properties
Need to functionalize surface
for increasing biocompatibility
Irreversible agglomerates in aqueous solution
ElectrodeCarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
0.0055 fM
[17]
ElectrodeTransforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)
0.05 pM
[9]
ElectrodeProstate specific antigen (PSA)
0.11 fM
[18]
ElectrodeMouse IgG
0.066 pM
[19]
LabelPSA
0.13 pM
[20]
GrapheneHigh S/V
Large active sites
Fast electron transfer
High thermal conductivity
Better mechanical flexibility
Good biocompatibility
Hard to dissolve in waterElectrodedibutyl phthalate (DBP)
0.025 μM
[21]
ElectrodePSA
0.33 pM
[22]
ElectrodeCystatin C
0.002 nM
[23]
LabelCry1C
0.02 pM
[24]
LabelCEA
0.003 pM
[25]