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Table 1 Summary of representative carbon-based nanomaterials used in electrode and label of electrochemical biosensor

From: Electrochemical biosensors: perspective on functional nanomaterials for on-site analysis

MaterialsAdvantageLimitationsFeatureLimit of detectionRef.
SWCNTLarge surface area to volume ratio (S/V)
Low charge-carried density
Delocalized π-orbitals
Electrical conductivity improvements
Limited surface to interface
with large biological components
Nonspecific adsorption of protein
Difficult manipulation during sensor fabrication process
Difficult chemical functionalization
ElectrodeDeoxyriboNucleic acid (DNA)
71 pM
7.06 μA/mM
Electrodeaflatoxin B1 (AFB1)
0.01 nM
0.2 pM
MWCNTExcellent conducting and
electro-catalytic properties
Need to functionalize surface
for increasing biocompatibility
Irreversible agglomerates in aqueous solution
ElectrodeCarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
0.0055 fM
ElectrodeTransforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)
0.05 pM
ElectrodeProstate specific antigen (PSA)
0.11 fM
ElectrodeMouse IgG
0.066 pM
0.13 pM
GrapheneHigh S/V
Large active sites
Fast electron transfer
High thermal conductivity
Better mechanical flexibility
Good biocompatibility
Hard to dissolve in waterElectrodedibutyl phthalate (DBP)
0.025 μM
0.33 pM
ElectrodeCystatin C
0.002 nM
0.02 pM
0.003 pM