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Table 1 A summary of melanin-like nanomaterials synthesized for biomedical applications

From: Recent advances in melanin-like nanomaterials in biomedical applications: a mini review

Biomedical applicationsTemplateSizeFunctional additivesRef
TherapyROS scavengerpDA NP80 nm[24]
160 nmw/ and w/o Cu2+[25]
Photodynamic therapypDA/PEG coating on CaCO340 nmPhotosensitizer: chlorin e6[26]
Photothermal therapypDA NP160 nm[27]
PEGylated pDA NP78 nmAnticancer drug: doxorubicin, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin[28]
Drug delivery systempDA NP75–400 nmAnticancer drug: camptothecin[29]
PEGylated pDA NP28 nmLigand: triphenylphosphonium Anticancer drug: doxorubicin[30]
Polyethylenimine-decorated pDA NP60–80 nmTherapeutics: plasmid DNA[31]
Poly (methacrylic acid) -coated pDA capsule300 nmAnticancer drug: doxorubicin[32]
pDA coating on insulin NP50, 71, 84 nm (coating)[33]
pDA/PEG coating on mesoporous silica NP193.08 nmLigand: folic acidAnticancer drug: doxorubicin[34]
Bioimaging and theranosticsPhotoacoustic ImagingEthylenediamine/PEG-coated pDA NP130 nm[35]
pDA-coated AuNP150 nm[36]
PDA-coated Fe3O4 NP15 nm64Cu[37]
Melanin NP42.5 ± 2.1 nmTargeting moiety: poly-L-lysine[38]
Magnetic resonance imagingpDA NP51, 119, 188 nmCu (II)[39]
PEGylated pDA NP70–300 nmMn (II)[40]
25–43 nmFe (III)[41]
PEGylated Melanin NP13 nmGd (III), Cu (II)[42]
BiosensingFluorescent pDApDA with ethylenediamine NPTens of nm[43]
pDA NP reduced by NaBH434.83 nm[44]
Fluorescence quencherMesoporous pDA NP70 nmFluorescein amidites (FAM)-labeled DNA probe[45]
pDA-coated upconversion NP5 nm (coating)Cy3-aptamer[46]