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Table 1 Several parameters of recently developed nature-derived photocrosslinkable biomaterials for 3D printing

From: Recent advances in the development of nature-derived photocrosslinkable biomaterials for 3D printing in tissue engineering

Major biomaterial(s)PhotoinitiatorCuring parameterShape fidelityPrinting resolutionPrinting method /Construct sizeCell typeReference
Intensity
[mW /cm2]
Curing time [sec]Compressive modulusStorage modulus
UV light-basedHAMA & GelMAIrgacure 2959N/A30, 90~ 9 kPaN/A800 μmExtrusion /10 mm × 10 mm × 1.2 mmBAP, WAP33
PECMAIrgacure 29597160N/A~ 2.6 kPaN/AExtrusion /8 mm × 8 mm × 4.5 mmhNDFs35
SilMALAP304~ 125 kPa~ 25 kPa66 μm (circle)
90 μm (square)
142 μm (height)
Light-assisted /25 mm × 25 mm × 50 mmChondrocyte5
CollagenRiboflavin120010N/A~ 2 kPa900–1100 μmExtrusion /25 mm × 25 mm × 0.4 mmChondrocyte39
dECMRiboflavin30180~ 15 kPa10–30 kPa114–860 μmExtrusion /N/ACPCs41, 44
Visible light-basedAneroinRu(II)bpy32+200010~ 6400 kPaN/A100–950 μmExtrusion /35 mm × 50 mm × 18 mmMSCs12
Gtn-HPARu(II)bpy32+N/A10, 20, 30~ 55 kPaN/AN/AExtrusion /N/ACOS-749
  1. Abbreviation: HAMA methacrylated hyaluronic acid, GelMA methacrylated gelatin, PECMA Pectin methacrylate, SilMA chemically modified silk fibroin by glycidyl methacrylate; dECM decellularized extracellular matrix, Aneroin, sea anemone-derived silk-like protein, Gtn-HPA gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid conjugate LAP lithium phenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphinate, N/A not available, BAP brown adipose progenitor cells, WAP white adipose progenitor cells, hNDFs human neonatal dermal fibroblasts, CPCs cardiac progenitor cells, MSCs mesenchymal stem cells; COS-7 kidney cells derived from the African green monkey