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Table 1 Imaging technique for diagnosis

From: Theranostics and contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

Imaging modality Type of probe Sensitivity Spatial resolution Advantages Disadvantages Reference
MRI Gd, Mn, Ln, Iron oxide, Iron platinum Low 25–100 μm No radiation
High resolution (soft tissue)
Slow scan
High cost
Noise
[109,110,111]
X-ray, CT I, Au, Bi, Xe Low 20–100 μm Low cost
High resolution (bone fractures)
Radiation [112, 113]
Gamma ray PET (18F, 68Ga)
SPECT (99mTC, 111In, 177Lu)
High 1–2 mm High sensitive
High resolution (biological processes)
Less noise
High cost
Radiation
[114, 115]
Ultrasound Microbubbles low 50–500 μm No radiation
Fast scan
Non-invasive
Ease of procedure
Low cost
Low resolution [116]