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Table 1 Summary of studies using 3D graphene-based substrate for differentiation of MSCs

From: Two-dimensional material-based bionano platforms to control mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

3D platform Type of carbon-based material Type of cells Outcomes Reference
GFs Graphene foam hBMMSCs GFs promoted osteogenic differentiation without the use of chemical inducers. [81]
rGO-Collagen hybrid (PADM-rGO) Reduced Graphene Oxide rBMMSCs PADM-rGO promoted the differentiation of MSCs into neural cells after 7 days under neural differentiation condition. [102]
GC Graphene hBMMSCs The graphene / calcium silicate (GC) composite coating promoted adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and greatly increased the expression of genes involved in differentiation [94]
HAp Reduced Graphene Oxide hMSCs rGO - coated HA not only significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation capacity of hMSC in osteogenic medium, but also significantly increased differentiation ability in basal medium. [51]
GO-PEDOT Reduced Graphene Oxide hBMMSCs GO-PEDOT controlled osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs through electrical stimulation. [99]
  1. hBMMSC human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cell, GF graphene foam, GC graphene/calcium silicate, HAp hydroxlyapatite, PEDOT poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxyphene)